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Abstracts for Articles Published Recently


Techniques for Enhancing Sustainability of Industrial Operations
Full paper published in Proceedings of the IEEE Green Technology Conference, Lubbock, TX, April, 2009. Click for Synopsis of Full Text.

A Zero Waste Management Strategy to Reduce the Cost of Alternative Energy
Full paper published in Proceedings of the IEEE Green Technology Conference, Lubbock, TX, April, 2009. Click for Synopsis of Full Text.

Parallel Models for Lean and Green Operations
Full paper published in Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL, June, 2009. Click for Synopsis of Full Text.

Lean Manufacturers’ Transcendence to Green Manufacturing
Full paper published in Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL, June, 2009. Click for Synopsis of Full Text.

Are Lean and Green Programs Synergistic?
Full paper published in Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL, June, 2009. Click for Synopsis of Full Text.



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Techniques for Enhancing Sustainability of Industrial Operations 
Paul R. McCright, PhD and Gary G. Bergmiller, PhD

Reducing the consumption of energy from non-renewable energy sources is critical in reducing global warming and making a company’s operations sustainable in the long term. Sustainable companies make a top-level managerial commitment to reducing energy usage and establish environmental management systems (EMS) with this goal in mind. More is required than this commitment. Companies serious about reducing their energy consumption must establish a culture that empowers all employees to identify and eliminate waste, identify their points of consumption, and implement effective energy usage reducing techniques. Some of these techniques are well-known; however, some are less obvious but should not be overlooked.

As part of a broad study of the synergistic relationship between Lean Production Systems and Green Operations Systems, we have shown that application of techniques usually associated with Lean programs also result in improvements in waste generation and energy consumption. Here we present techniques that are applicable to a wide variety of industries for the reduction of energy used in facilities, fleets, and process systems as well as suggestions for changes in policies and procedures to support this effort and opportunities for incorporation of alternative energy sources in these areas.

Full paper published in Proceedings of the IEEE Green Technology Conference, Lubbock, TX, April, 2009.

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A Zero Waste Management Strategy to Reduce the Cost of Alternative Energy 
Gary G. Bergmiller, PhD and Paul R. McCright, PhD

The single greatest barrier to switching to alternative energy is justifying the cost of the technology (solar, wind, etc).  With payback periods generally over ten years, switching takes a personal commitment to this technology few can afford to make.  Alternatively, if the cost to produce and install this technology was driven down, this technology would be more affordable and thus more prevalent.  As production levels increase, the economies of scale will drive cost down further. 

We have developed a model for integrating Lean and Green Production Systems into a single sustainable cost reduction system we call “Zero Waste Operations” (ZWO). Introduction of ZWO by organizations producing alternative energy technologies can drastically help the supply side of the alternative energy industry through multiple sustainable cost savings opportunities. For example, Toyota made a serious commitment to Lean production years ago.  This made them very successful, profitable, and led to their commitment to the environment with hybrid vehicles.

Lower costs bring the potential for exponentially increasing the usage of these products, reducing non-renewable energy sources and their nasty green house emissions. Applying ZWO, alternative energy technology manufacturers can dramatically improve their companies’ sustainability while contributing immensely to the sustainability of the Earth.

Full paper published in Proceedings of the IEEE Green Technology Conference, Lubbock, TX, April, 2009.

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Parallel Models for Lean and Green Operations 
Gary G. Bergmiller, PhD and Paul R. McCright, PhD

Many leading companies have implemented Lean Manufacturing Programs which yield increased efficiency, reduced costs, improved customer response time, and more. Others have adopted “Green” Programs resulting in reduced energy consumption, waste generation, and hazardous materials usage.
We reviewed Lean Manufacturing System Models suggested by Womack; Panizzolo; the Society of Automotive Engineers; and Liker along with the Shingo Prize criteria for its Excellence in Manufacturing award. Likewise, we reviewed Green Manufacturing Models, programs, and checklists suggested by Russo; Montabon; Ciambrone; the Global Environmental Management Initiative; Scallon and Sten; the International Standards Organization; Melnyk, Stroufe, and Calantone; and the Environmental Protection Agency. These models all include reliance on management systems to drive waste identification and the implementation of waste reducing techniques (WRT) to achieve desired business results.
Studying companies identified by the Shingo Prize as being Lean, we confirmed that strength of management system is correlated to implementation of WRTs and that strength of implementation of WRTs is correlated to business results for both Lean and Green Programs. Our results indicate Lean and Green Programs can lead to improved business results. We also raise the intriguing question of potential synergistic cross-correlation effects between Lean and Green Programs.

Full paper published in Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL, June, 2009.

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Lean Manufacturers’ Transcendence to Green Manufacturing 
Gary G. Bergmiller, PhD and Paul R. McCright, PhD

Lean manufacturers were studied to determine if such manufacturers were transcending to a Green state as a result of their commitment to Lean production. The Lean manufacturers were all companies that received site visits from the Shingo Prize team between 2000 and 2005 as part of the evaluation process for the Prize. This sample included 120 individual manufacturing plants, from which 47 usable surveys were received. The data from this sample was compared to similar data published by Melnyk, Sroufe, and Calantone (2003) regarding the Greenness of 1100 general manufacturing plants in the US.

Variables in the study include measures of Green Management System, Green Waste Reducing Techniques, and Green Results as defined by Melnyk, et al. Measures of Leanness are derived from Shingo evaluations of the plants. Our results are staggering. In 25 of 26 Green measures (GMS, GWRT, and GR), the Shingo companies score significantly higher than the general population of manufacturers studied by Melnyk, et al.  This makes a very powerful statement that Lean companies are embracing Green objectives and suggests that Lean manufacturers are transcending to Green manufacturing as a natural extension of their culture of continuous waste reduction, integral to world class Lean programs.
 
Full paper published in Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL, June, 2009.

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Are Lean and Green Programs Synergistic?
 
Gary G. Bergmiller, PhD and Paul R. McCright, PhD

Since Lean and Green Programs each require management commitment and employee involvement, identification and reduction of organizational wastes, and continuously improving organizations, intuition suggests implementation of one program may actually make implementation of the second program less arduous. We hypothesize that firms pursuing Lean objectives will be more successful if they also pursue Green objectives. We studied winners and finalists of the Shingo Prize for Manufacturing Excellence (America’s pre-eminent Lean designation) for 2000 through 2005 and found many common elements of Green Programs existed within these companies’ Lean Programs. Statistical analysis of the data showed that firms with significant implementation of Green techniques had stronger overall Lean results. This result shows that Green activities contribute to Lean objectives. The efforts companies expend to target Lean results often reduce environmental impacts while their efforts to target Green results often increase efficiency and effectiveness. Thus, we conclude that evidence supports that a significant synergy exists between Lean and Green Programs, suggesting that firms pursuing Lean objectives will be more successful if they also pursue Green objectives.

Full paper published in Proceedings of the Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Miami, FL, June, 2009.

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