Alternative Energy: Non-fossil-based fuels; these are generally renewable resources (except technically for nuclear energy); ex. Wind, Geothermal, Hydro.

Best Practices: Concepts that are proven by industrial application to provide world class results; ex.

Business Results: Improvements in the business parameters expected from the implementation of Lean and Green Systems; ex. Improved Lead Time, Reduced Water Usage.

Climate Change: Changes in weather patterns attributable to global warming; ex. Arctic Ice Reductions, Droughts, Intensified Hurricanes.

Dirty Dozen Wastes: The combination of seven identified “Lean” wastes with a set of five categories of environmental wastes; ex. Costs, Hazardous Wastes.

Economic Sustainability: Operations that are sufficiently efficient and profitable that they can be performed for lengthy periods of time.

Environmental Sustainability: Operations or activities that do not use Earth’s resources at a rate that is greater than they can be replenished and that do not create pollution faster than the Earth’s natural processes can neutralize it.

Fossil Fuel: Energy-producing substances drawn from decaying organic matter that has remained in the Earth for millennia; ex. Petroleum, Coal, Natural Gas.

Full Sustainability: Operations that are both economically and environmentally sustainable.

Green Systems: Organized approaches to creating and maintaining operations and production systems that have either neutral or positive impacts on the environment; ex.

Global Warming: The gradual rise in average temperatures on the surface of the Earth generally attributed to human activity, primarily the burning of fossil fuels.

Integrated Lean and Green Systems: Organized approaches to creating and maintaining operations and production systems that integrate the elements of both Lean and Green Systems and seek to achieve the goals of both; ex. Zero Waste Operations.

Lean Systems: Organized approaches to creating and maintaining operations and production systems that are highly productive, effective, and economically sustainable; ex. The Toyota Production System.

Management Systems: The elements of Lean and Green Systems that focus on creating management commitment, employee empowerment, and evaluation techniques to support Lean or Green Systems; ex. ISO 14001 Environmental Management System.

Non-Renewable Resources: Earth’s resources that have finite amounts existing with no significant development of new resources; ex. Petroleum, Iron Ore.

Renewable Resources: Earth’s resources that are regularly replenished; ex. Sunlight, Forests, Crops.

Waste Identification Techniques: Specific practical applications that can be used to determine what wastes are created by a production or operations system, where the wastes are created, and how much waste is created; ex. Value Stream Mapping.

Waste Reduction Techniques: Specific practical techniques for reducing or eliminating the wastes created in a particular part of a production or operations system; ex. Push Flow, Recycling.

Zero Waste: The ideal of conducting operations and production systems that produce no wasted efforts, materials, energy, or time.

Zero Waste Operations: The process systems that meet the zero waste goal; these highly effective and efficient systems are expected to be fully sustainable.